This essay emphasizes the critical reversal of the traditional historiographical model dominant in
history of ideas. If most of the actual scientifc currents give more attention to the study of the
past world while progressively decreasing their focus on the contemporary world, Geymonat
has done the opposite. Therefore, in his History of Philosophical and Scientifc Thought, he identifes the birth of modern science as a fundamental turning point from which on nothing should
be as before. Therefore, as we approach the contemporary era, his History expands more and
more and three large volumes are dedicated to 20th century thought. Secondly, Geymonat’s
entire history is traversed by a common thread identifed in the privileged relationship that
exists between the interweaving of scientifc and philosophical thought. The insistence on the
philosophical value of scientifc thought constitutes another characteristic of this work. Lastly,
Geymonat’s approach to history is based on a critically articulated coherent defence of the
research programme based on materialism that takes its cue from the lesson of the classics
of Marxism. In this perspective, the historiographical and theoretical model outlined by Veblen
allows Geymonat to put in place a heuristic criterion capable of reconciling the critical in-depth
study of the subject matter with its continuous critical-rational revision.